A root canal is a treatment to save an infected or damaged tooth. When a tooth is endodontically (interior structure of a tooth) in a bad situation, the pulp, the vital part of teeth made up of living tissues, can be infected or damaged. This pulp damage needs endodontic treatment, also known as dental root canal treatment, to restore the health of the tooth.

When do you need a root canal?

It may be difficult to know if you need a root canal treatment or not. But you will not have any doubt once you talk to your dentist about the symptoms and take the X-rays and CT scans of your teeth. The damaged pulp is inside your tooth, and you should look for the signs and symptoms of the damaged pulp. Knowing what destroys the pulp inside your tooth can be helpful to know if you are eligible for root canal therapy.

The common causes of pulp damage are:

  • Tooth decay and caries that get deep into the tooth, causing pulp infection
  • A dental injury
  • Fractured or cracked tooth, which leaves the pulp exposed to bacteria
  • Several dental restorations were performed on the same tooth
  • Abnormal or congenital conditions

Signs and symptoms that you may need root canal therapy:

  • Pain in the tooth, which can be sharp, spontaneous or lingering that can be triggered by chewing and pressures
  • Pain and sensitivity in response to temperature changes. For example, by eating hot or cold foods and drinks.
  • Swelling and inflammation in the gum and the connective tissues near the damaged pulp

A tip to remember: some people may be asymptomatic, meaning they show no symptoms at all, so a dental visit can always assure you of your diseased pulp and overall dental health.

How is the root canal procedure done?

Your endodontist or dentist takes X-rays, CT, and other necessary radiographic images to check the pulp and root canals. Then a root canal treatment is scheduled. The procedure may take 1 or 3 visits to be completed depending on the difficulty of the surgery.

Steps of root canal treatment:

1. Anesthesia is applied

Like other dental surgeries, you will be given anesthetics to feel numb in your gums and the tooth. This will prevent any feeling of pain and discomfort during your root canal procedure.

2. Pulp removal and root canal cleaning

Your dentist drills a hole from the top of the tooth. The infected pulp tissue is removed. The canals are cleaned of any abscess, infection, or debris. To disinfect the canals thoroughly and eliminate any chance of infection rise, your dentist applies antibiotics. If there is a need for reshaping the pulp chambers, it is done. You will need healthy root canals for filling materials.

3. Sealing the tooth

Once the cleaning is done, the tooth is sealed off by a temporary filling material and a sterile sponge. This stage is to prevent saliva or bacteria in the mouth from leaking into the root canals.

4. Permanent filling

Then the canals are filled with a rubber-like material. Filling materials have anti-bacterial and biocompatibility features. The capability of the filling materials to tightly fill the empty spaces in the root canals results in sealing the root canals completely. This is why filling materials like gutta-percha and zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealing cement have proven to be successful in root canal filling.

5. The tooth is restored

In the final stage, your dentist will restore the tooth. They may restore a dental crown completely with porcelain or a porcelain-fused-to-metal material. For moderate endodontically diseased teeth, dental filling materials like amalgam or composite resin are common restorative options.

If the tooth has little remaining structure to hold a crown, you will need post and core system. This is done through a metal post placement in the root canal. This restorative technique is great for the core material retention.

Does a root canal hurt?

Root canal therapy is not painful during the procedure because it is done under local anesthesia. Your dentist applies numbing agents and you will have a pain-free procedure. The effect of the anesthetics may wear off within hours after root canal therapy, so you can take over-the-counter pain medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.

Do not overuse and ask your dentist about the dosage. You may have slight sensitivity and pain within several days after your root canals, and it is normal for any oral and dental surgery. But if the pain persists for more days and is unbearable, call your dentist and have an appointment immediately.

Root canal aftercare

  • If antibiotics are applied and you need another visit to have your root canals completed, follow what the dentist says to avoid any contamination in your mouth and teeth
  • Eat and drink carefully during the early days after root canal therapy. Watch out for the restored tooth and avoid eating hot or cold foods and drinks for a while.
  • Do the routine brushing and oral hygiene activities 
  • Visit your dentist at the follow-up sessions. Regular appointments after your canal treatment will ensure no potential risk rise.

How much does a root canal cost?

The cost of this varies depending on the tooth (back or front teeth), the dental office location and other factors. You may anticipate higher prices if insurance does not cover your root canal treatment. Keep in mind that the cost of a root canal does not include the restoration of the tooth, or the crown that is made on top.

Also, some general dentists may not perform canal therapy for the molar (back) teeth due to the difficulty or more training that this procedure requires. Therefore, you will be referred to an endodontist, and usually, the price adds up by a 50 % increase in such cases.

The average cost of root canal therapy:

Front teeth (incisors): $500-$1000

Back teeth (molars): $800-$1500.

A tip to remember: The average price for a it with insurance coverage can be reduced by 50 percent in some insurance providers. For example, your payment may be around $300 to $500 for a tooth that normally costs $1000.


    • It is possible to have an infection without it having progressed to being systemic and causing a fever or immediate danger. Next time, seek treatment when it begins, or better yet, get regular preventative care and you will not be running the risk of it getting serious over six months.
      If you get otherwise unexplained actual fever or swelling interfering with breathing/swallowing go to the ER. Otherwise, it is not an emergency. Most dentist offices offer preventative/early treatment fir dental issues and try to provide ‘urgent’ (sometimes called ‘emergency’, though it is kinda a misnomer) appointments for severe pain when they can fit you in, but they are not set up to provide true emergency care on short notice every day of the year.

  1. Thanks for also talking about the kind of antibiotics that I will need to take after a root canal therapy. I might need that soon because one of my molars is starting to decay a lot. It would be best to work on halting that as soon as possible.

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